Based on the premise of using a PRP supplement to combat AIDS, a Phase I trial was carried out with several AIDS patients at the Infectious Disease Clinic in Dayton, Ohio, in 1996. A spray PRP preparation called PRPS™ was given to AIDS patients in a dosage of three sprays every four hours. Patients were initially assessed as to severity of the disease and clinical symptoms, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, cough, and so forth. Based on the success of these initial trials, two Phase II trials were carried out at the University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya and in Nigeria in 2000.
Proline-Rich-Polypeptides (PRP) are known to have the ability to both up-regulate and down-regulate the immune system. As PRP is available in abundant quantities from bovine colostrum and at low cost, a research trial using a PRP spray was designed to test its effectiveness for AIDS patients, particularly those in areas of the world where expensive pharmaceutical treatments are unavailable. Preliminary phase I studies showed promise in increasing CD4+ T-cell counts in AIDS patients, so phase II studies were carried out in Kenya and Nigeria with more patients. Results of the studies showed increases in CD4+ T-cell counts to normal or near normal levels and the remission of AIDS symptoms in most patients, as well as significant weight gains. This suggests that PRP spray may prove to be a useful, low cost, easy to use, and side effect-free adjunct therapy in the treatment of AIDS.
An alternative approach to modulating cytokine levels, in particular the pro-inflammatory cytokines, are possible in mammals with simple oral supplementation of a class of bovine first milking colostrum peptides.
A subclass of colostrum peptides of molecular weight 1000 (PRP-3b)
was isolated using high pressure liquid chromatography - size exclusion
ion exchange and collected in a microfiltered water solution. The amino
acid sequence of PRP-3b was: Val--Glu--Ser--Tyr--Val--Pro--
Physical symptoms of allergic inflammatory symptoms were observed, monitored, and recorded before and after 2ml oral administration. Peptides were administered orally at various intervals over a thirty day period.
The peptides appeared to relieve inflammatory pressures, for example sinus pressures, and other allergic symptoms in all cohorts, some within minutes after the initial oral dose. A greater reduction in symptoms was observed with more frequent administration. No negative side effects were observed throughout the trial.
It is understood, allergen plus IL-4 leads to allergy. IL-4 is not the only important cytokine in allergy. In many cases IL-13 (1) is even the more important cytokine, since it is produced for a longer time and to higher levels than IL-4. IL-5 is also an important cytokine in asthmatic patients.
Modulation of the cytokine network using colostrum PRP3 sub-class peptides by oral supplementation appears to balance or modulate the mammalian cytokine system, and thus reduce real time allergic pro-inflammatory symptoms. Continuous oral supplementation is required if further exposure to allergens exists. Cytokine and immune modulation by colostrum peptide supplementation also can help with many other challenging health conditions; these are discussed herein.
One of the components of colostrum that is of particular interest is PRPs, or Proline-Rich-Polypeptides. PRP is also known as colostrinin, colostrinine, transfer factor, and other names, but they are all essentially the same fraction of colostrum. Actually a group of related polypeptides, PRPs from colostrum have demonstrated remarkable immunologic and neurologic properties. PRPs immunological function relate to their ability to modulate and stabilize many biological processes in the body including cytokine and immune activity.
Proline rich polypeptides are active immune modulating peptides from colostrum. Specifically, they are thought to help modulate Th1/Th2, favoring a “shift to the left”, meaning they tend to up-regulate Th1 and down-regulate Th2. In order to test PRP’s ability to down regulate Th2, a study was designed to measure PRPs effect the allergic reactions of guinea pigs sensitized to egg protein. Simultaneously, another group of sensitized guinea pigs were used to see the direct antihistamine effect on PRP, if any, upon their exposure to histamine.
PRP didn’t affect the development of systemic anaphylaxis induced in sensibilized guinea pigs by exogenic histamine. Proline rich polypeptides do not appear to act as antihistamines PRP has shown clear anti-allergic activity and inhibited the development of systemic anaphylaxis, induced in sensibilized guinea pigs by ovalbumin. These findings support their purported function of down-regulating Th2 mediated allergic cascades.
The nutritional value of milk is largely undisputed. Colostrum, the first milk produced by mammals after parturition, has been thoroughly studied on recent years, after confirming its superior nutritional and protective value when compared to milk. Initially, colostrum was used clinically as a vehicle for passive immunity transfer. It is now known colostrum contains cytokines and other protein compounds of very low molecular weight that can act as Biological Response Modifiers (BMRs), which intervene locally in most biological processes, This article reviews the composition and current clinical use of colostrum derívate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and ostheoarthritis.
A proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) complex, subsequently called Colostrinin®, was isolated from ovine colostrum. The complex showed immunomodulatory properties in mice, rats, and chickens, inducing maturation and differentiation of thymocytes. It was recently found that Colostrinin® is a cytokine-like factor that acts as an inducer of interferon g (IFN-g) and other cytokines in human peripheral blood and cord blood leukocyte cultures and has psycho-immuno-enhancing activity in volunteers. These observations prompted us to study the effect of Colostrinin® on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty six AD patients were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to receive orally either Colostrinin® (100 m_g per tablet, every second day), commercially available bioorganic selenium (100 mg selenium per tablet, every second day) or placebo tablets. One cycle of the treatment lasted 3 weeks and was separated from the next cycle by a 2 week hiatus. Each patient received 10 cycles of treatment during the year of the clinical trial. Outcomes were assessed by psychiatrists blinded to the treatment assignment. Eight of the 15 AD patients treated with Colostrini® improved and in the 7 others the disease had stabilized. In contrast, none of the 31 patients from the selenium or placebo groups with similar mild or moderate AD improved. The administration of selenium promoted stabilization in 13 of the 15 patients, whereasin the placebo group only 8 of the 16 patients were stabilized at the 12 month trials end-evaluation. Colostrinin® was found to be a remarkably safe drug. Mild and transient effects were anxiety, stimulation, insomnia, and tiredness. The results obtained showed that oral administration of Colostrinin® improves the outcome of AD patients with mild to moderate dementia. The results are very encouraging and deserve further research.
Background and aims: Colostrinin™ (CLN), a uniform mixture of low-molecular weight proline-rich polypeptides extends the life-span of diploid fibroblasts, induces neurite outgrowth of pheochromocytoma cells, decreases mutation frequencies in both Chinese hamster and human cells and inhibits beta amyloid-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells. Most importantly, oral administration of CLN has shown a stabilizing effect on cognitive function in Alzheimer's patients measured by the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-cog) and in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of CLN on the life-span and various behavior characteristics in senescence-accelerated mice.
Methods: The battery of behavioral tests included: swim maze, locomotor distance, rotorod running, walking initiation, alley turning, bridge walking, wire suspension, and discriminated active avoidance tests. Results: Here we show that CLN administration to mice prolongs life-span (26% increase), improves age-associated locomotion, motor coordination, and learning/memory capacities. Increase in life-span and improved neurological performance correlated well with the levels of oxidative stress markers measured in various organs. In particular, we demonstrate an improved mitochondrial function, decrease in levels of 8-oxoguanine in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and significantly reduced oxidative damage to proteins in brain and liver.
Conclusions: These results support the view that this newly discovered characteristic of CLN underlines its utility in age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and the quality life improvement in the elderly.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that 24 hour pre-treatment with 5 mg/ml CLN establishes significant neuroprotection for SH-SY5Y cells treated with Ab (Figures 1 and 4). This effect may be due, in part, to a decrease in Ab-induced apoptosis (Figures 2 and 3) by the inhibition of Fas:membrane-bound FasL binding (Figures 4 and 7). Additional effects of CLN may be to inhibit Aβ aggregation (Figure 5).